8th Grade


Instructional Outcomes
By the end of the designated grade level, the student should be able to:

Content Outline
I. Define Terms Related to Human Sexuality

A. What is Human Sexuality? This term refers to emotional closeness, sexual health and reproduction, and sexual identity. As we study human sexuality we will discuss how you develop your individual sexual identity. (Source: Life Planning Education, Advocates for Youth, Washington, D.C page 123)

B. What is Sexual Identity? This term refers to a person's understanding of who she or he is sexually, including the sense of being male or female. Sexual identity can be thought of as three interlocking pieces: gender identity, gender role and sexual orientation. Together, these pieces of sexual identity affect how each person sees herself or himself and each piece is important: (Source: Life Planning Education, Advocates for Youth, Washington, DC, Page 125).

1. Gender Identity: a person's internal sense of knowing whether he or she is male or female. Source: American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatrics, Vol. 92, No. 4 (Oct. 1993), pp. 631-34

2. Gender Role: knowing what it means to be male or female, or what a man
or woman can or cannot do because of their gender. Some things are determined by the way male or female bodies are built. For example, only women menstruate and only men produce sperm. Other things are culturally determined. In our culture, only women wear dresses to work, but in other cultures, men wear skirt-like outfits everywhere. (Source: Life Planning Education, Advocates for Youth, Washington, DC, Page 125).

3. Sexual Orientation: the persistent pattern of physical and/or emotional attraction to members of the same or opposite sex (gender). Included in this are heterosexuality (opposite-gender attractions), homosexuality (samegender attractions), and bisexuality (attractions to members of both genders). (Source: American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatrics, Vol. 92, No.4 (Oct. 1993), pp. 631-34)

a. Heterosexual Or "Straight" refers to people whose sexual, emotional and affectional feelings are for the opposite gender (sex): Men who are attracted to women, and women who are attracted to men. (Source: American Psychiatric Association Fact Sheet: Gay,Lesbian and Bisexual Issues (May 2000)).

b. Homosexual or Gay refers to people whose sexual, emotional and affectional feelings are for the same gender (sex): Men who are attracted to men; and women who are attracted to women. (Source: American Psychiatric Association Fact Sheet: Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues (May 2000)).

c. Lesbian refers to women who are homosexual. (Source: American Psychological Association Online, Answers to your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality. (July2003) http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/answers.html

d. Bisexual or "Bi" refers to people whose sexual, emotional and affectional feelings are for both genders. (Source: Id).

For Teacher Reference Only
Questioning refers to people who are uncertain as to their sexual orientation. (No source)
Transgender refers to someone whose gender identity or expression differs from conventional expectations for their physical sex. This term includes transsexual and transvestite.(Source: American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatrics, Vol. 92, No. 4 (Oct. 1993), pp. 631-34)
Coming Out refers to the process in which a person identifies himself or herself as homosexual or bisexual to family, friends and other significant people in his or her life. (Source: American Psychiatric Association Fact Sheet: Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues (May 2000)).
Intersexed refers to people who are born with anatomy or physiology (ambiguous genitalia) that differs from cultural and/or medical ideals of male and female. (School Resource)


A. Define stereotyping - an exaggerated and over simplified belief about an entire group of people such as an ethnic group , religious group or a certain gender

B. Examples of Stereotyping and Generalizations

1. gender role stereotyping
a. girls do the housework, boys fix cars
b. girls are better at English, boys are better at Science
c. girls are better babysitters than boys, boys are better at sports
d. girls become nurses, boys become doctors

2. gender identity stereotyping
a. boys don't cry, girls do
b. one sex is not supposed to enjoy activities that are culturally designated for the other sex. (e.g. boys don't enjoy talking on the phone -- girls do; girls don't enjoy math- boys do)
c. boys remain calm in a crisis, girls get hysterical
d. girls fall in love, boys fall in lust
3. sexual orientation stereotyping
a. gay men are feminine, i.e. dislike sports/want to be like women
b. lesbian women are masculine, i.e. --prefer masculine attire/are tough/hate men
c. heterosexual men are masculine -- i.e. like to play sports and watch them on TV
d. heterosexual women are feminine -- i.e. like to dress in frilly clothing

C. Factors That Influence Stereotyping
1. family values
2. societal generalizations and cultural beliefs
3. peers
4. media influence

D. Acceptance of Differences
1. Stereotyping promotes discrimination and prejudice and can be destructive to community.
2. The strength of American society continues to lie in the ability of people to accept and respect diversity
3. Being able to see things from another's view point promotes harmony and strength in a society.

Key Resources: Just For The Health Of It, Unit 3, p. 35, 38


A. Possible Effects of Cultural Factors
1. arranged marriages
2. chaperoned dates
3. gender roles in household

B. Possible Affects of Religious Beliefs
1. cannot marry outside the religion
2. children must be raised in the same religion
3. different religions take different stands on sexual behaviors and there are even different views among people of the same religion

C. Other Factors That Affect Relationships
1. education and economic status
2. family acceptance of partner/friend
3. sexual orientation of partner/friend
4. ethnicity of partner/ friend

D. Examples of Problems Created by Contrasting Values/Beliefs
1. rejection
2. harassment
3. internal conflict and devaluation of the self

E. Ways to Manage Problems Created By Contrasting Values
1. Talk to someone you trust in your:
2. Seek out information to help clarify your beliefs and feelings

Key Resources: CHMG, Family Relationships, p. 4.

IV. Explore The Effect of Family Stress and Divorce on the Family and Society

A. Divorce and/or separation
1. define and describe
2. leading causes - lack of communication, financial problems
3. more common today

B. Effect of family stress and separation/divorce on the family
1. loss of communication
2. loss of love
3. unable to deal effectively with problems
4. socioeconomic changes that result in financial hardship
5. family members may become dysfunctional
a. substance abuse
b. child abuse
c. child neglect
d. spouse abuse

C. Effect of family stress and separation/divorce on society
1. children become dysfunctional at school
2. breakdown of the family unit
3. need for more health care for the family to get through crisis
4. need for social services

Key Resources: CHMG, Family Relationships, p. 12, 64

V. Describe the Process of Pregnancy and Birth, Recognizing the Importance of Prenatal Care for Mother and Fetus

A. Fertilization
1. joining of sperm and egg

B. Embryo
1. attachment to the uterine wall (discuss ectopic pregnancy)
a. placenta
b. umbilical cord
c. amniotic sac

C. Fetus
1. need for prenatal care
a. proper nutrition
b. avoiding alcohol, and other drugs (including OTC drugs)
c. avoiding tobacco
d. avoiding diseases
e. visiting obstetrician
f. appropriate exercise
2. health of the baby depends on health of the mother
a. placenta - exchange of material between baby and mother
b. developmental stages during each trimester
c. healthy development based on mothers behavior

D. Birth
1. labor
a. stage one - complete dilation of cervix
b. stage two - passing of the baby through the birth canal
c. stage three - delivery of the placenta

Key Resources: CHMG, Puberty and Reproduction, Unit 9
Just For The Health Of It, Unit 4, p. 24

VI. Discuss the Effects of Hormonal Changes On the Body and Behavior Throughout the Life Cycle

A. Review hormonal changes in the male at puberty
1. growth of body hair
a. underarms
b. chest
c. legs
d. pubic area
2. voice change
3. growth of muscles
4. growth of genitals
5. production of sperm
6. behavioral changes caused by hormonal imbalances
a. increased testosterone level causes increased aggression

B. Hormonal changes in the female at puberty
1. growth of breasts
2. growth of body hair
a. underarms
b. genitals
3. broadening of the hips
4. ovulation
5. menstruation
6. menopause
7. behavioral changes caused by hormonal imbalances
a. connection to menstrual cycle

C. Hormonal fluctuations throughout the life cycle
1. fluctuations during puberty for both males and females
2. fluctuations during pregnancy for women
3. menopause and hormonal changes later in life for males and females
4. hormone therapy and treatments

Key Resources: CHMG, Puberty and Reproduction, Unit 3
Think, Choose, Act Healthy, p. 235
Education For Sexuality And HIV/AIDS, Figures 2-3, 3-3
Teen Health, Course 3, p. 208-218

VII. Peer Pressure and Other Factors That Can Influence Decisions Regarding Sexual Behavior

A. Peer pressure
1. define, describe and give examples
2. "all your friends are doing it" - perception that is not accurate
3. manipulation to convince you to do something you don't want to do or to be something you don’t want to be

B. Other factors
1. family expectations and values
2. myths and misconceptions you may have regarding sexual behavior
3. cultural beliefs
4. religious beliefs
5. media messages

C. Sifting through all the influences
1. only you can decide what is best for you
2. a decision that should be based on more than passion
3. deciding what is right for you is a tough decision, but an important one

Key Resources: Just For The Health Of It, Unit 4, p. 81-82
CHMG, Abstinence, Unit 5
Education For Sexuality And HIV/AIDS, Meeks Heit, p. 304-307, 322-323

VIII. Analyze Consequences of Sexual Activity

A. Negative feelings about self
1. poor self concept
2. low self-esteem
3. disappointment
4. depression
5. suicide

B. Feelings others may hold
1. loss of reputation
2. change of friends

C. Pregnancy
1. change in lifestyle

D. Sexually transmitted diseases
1. infection that may cause death or damage to sexual organs

E. Long-term loving relationship
1. rare among teens
2. promises before sexual activity are many times forgotten afterward

F. Positive consequences
1. there are positive consequences of sexual activity for adults, but for most teens
the negative results far outweigh the positive

Key Resources: Personal and Social Skills, p. 135-136

IX. Examine Myths and Facts About Human Sexuality

A. Myths regarding pregnancy

1. Myth: A pregnancy can't happen the first time a boy and girl have sex.
Fact: The likelihood of pregnancy depends on how close ovulation occurs to sex, whether it is the first time or not.

2. Myth: If a boy and girl do it standing up, the girl can't get pregnant.
Fact: Sperm are highly mobile and pregnancy can occur regardless of the position of intercourse.

3. Myth: A boy can't get a girl pregnant if he pulls out.
Fact: Fluid that collects at the tip of the penis during an erection may contain sperm. If this fluid enters the vagina, pregnancy can occur regardless of whether ejaculation occurs.

4. Myth: A girl can't get pregnant if she has never had a period.
Fact: Ovulation occurs prior to menstruation. Therefore, having sex before the first period can still result in pregnancy.

5. Myth: A boy can't get a girl pregnant while she is menstruating.
Fact: Although not as common, sometimes ovulation can happen at the same time or soon after a period, and pregnancy can occur.

B. Myths regarding sexual orientation

1. Myth: Homosexuality is a mental health disorder.
Fact: All major professional mental health organizations affirm that homosexuality is not a mental disorder.

2. Myth: If you are "straight", you can become homosexual.
Fact: Most experts in the field have concluded that sexual orientation is not a choice.

3. Myth: You're a homosexual if you've had sex with, or even had a "sexy dream" about someone of the same gender.
Fact: Sex play with friends of the same gender is not uncommon during early adolescence and does not prove long-term sexual orientation.
4. Myth: Children of homosexual parents/guardians will become homosexuals.

Fact: Having homosexual parents/guardians does not predispose you to being homosexual.

C. Other

1. Myth: Males have stronger sex drives and are more interested in sex than females.
Fact: Female sex drive is just as strong. Society has traditionally allowed males to express their desires more openly.

2. Myth: Men must ejaculate once they have an erection.
Fact: The penis will return to a flaccid state whether or not ejaculation occurs.

3. Myth: You are not really a man or woman until you have sex.
Fact: Sometimes it is more difficult to say no than yes. It is more responsible and adult-like to wait until you are ready to handle the consequences.

Key Resources: CHMG, Abstinence, p. 10

X. Review the Social, Emotional and Economic Impact of Teenage Parenting

A. Social
1. loss of friendships
2. loss of social activities
3. marrying for the wrong reasons

B. Economic
1. inability to complete educational goals
2. lack of employment skills
3. low paying employment
4. use of the welfare system

C. Emotional
1. low self-esteem/concept
2. depression
3. forced to act like an adult (job, bills, parenting)
4. inability to cope with child rearing
a. child abuse
b. neglect
c. adoption
d. other
5. lost adolescence

Grade 8 Teacher Resources Approved by CACFLHD January 8, 2004

Grade 8 Curriculum Resources To Support Revisions to the Mental Health, and Family Life and Human Sexuality Units
Stereotyping and Generalization Resources
Lindley, Lisa L. Support for Instruction About Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools. Journal of School Health , January 2001, Vol. 71, No. 1
A Silent Crisis: Creating Safe Schools for Sexual Minority Youth, Chapter on Definitions and Stereotypes, (The Educational Materials Center, Central Michigan University) April, 2002.
Mental Health Resources
American Academy of Pediatrics, "Homosexuality and Adolescence", (Medical Library) http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZUHJP3KAC&sub_cat
Journal of Health Education, "Health Issues of Gay and Lesbian Youth: Implications for Schools," by Cyndi Giorgis, Kyle Higgins, and Warren L. McNab, January/February2000, Volume 31, No. 1
American Psychiatric Association, "Homosexual and Bisexual Issues", February, 2000. 1400 K St. NW Washington, DC, 20005, Internet: www.psych.org
General Information Resources
American Psychological Association (Online), "Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality." http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/answers.html
Life Planning Education , Chapter 5: Questions and Answers About Homosexua lity, p.162 written by Advocates for Youth, Washington, DC

Family Pride Coalition- Issues and News: Myths and Facts
Lesson Plan: Sexual Orientation Myths- Planned Parenthood Association of Edmonton
American Psychiatric Association: FactSheet; Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues
1400 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20005
Recognizing Sexual Myths: National Network for Family Resiliency
Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation and Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators, and School Personnel
Massachusetts Comprehensive Health Curriculum Framework- October 1999
Teen Pregnancy Information Center-Myths About Getting Pregnant
Myths and Facts
Gender Identity Disorder, Ann Reyes